Chiropody Curriculum

Semester 1 – Fall

APCH110 – Lower Extremity Anatomy Dissection

Lower Extremity Anatomy includes the study of normal structure plus certain common and clinically important variations. This lab will be held in the Anatomy Division at the University of Toronto, Medical Sciences Bldg., 1 King’s College Circle, Toronto. It is taught over 7 weeks and allows students the opportunity to learn both details of structure and the relationships among the structures of the human lower limb. Dissection will take place regionally from the pelvis to the foot. Upon satisfactory completion of this course, students will be able to accurately identify all major structures of the lower limb, state their relationships, and explain their actions.

APCH112 – Structure and Function of the Lower Limb

Understanding the anatomical organization of the lower extremity is essential for effective assessment and treatment of foot disorders. This online course presents the detailed anatomy of the entire lower limb including the foot. The learner will be introduced to anatomical terminology commonly used within medicine and to the specialized terminology more commonly applied in the practice of Chiropody. The foot will be linked to each of the anatomical regions, pelvis to ankle throughout the 14-week semester. A comprehensive look at the foot will occur in the first 4 weeks of the semester. Then the lower limb will be reviewed region by region to the foot again. Laboratory instruction includes use of your purchased plastic skeletal foot model, anatomical computer software, group activities, simulated patient case studies and radiographic views of the lower limb. Upon satisfactory completion of this course, the learner will be able to describe the normal structures of the lower limb, as well as explain their anatomical and functional significance.

DMCH121 – Dermatology

This is a comprehensive lecture-based course in the basic and clinical aspects of cutaneous medicine. It provides the foundation that will enable the chiropody student to recognize and understand a considerable number of diseases in which the skin is solely or largely the central focus of the disturbance.

PGCH110 – Pathophysiology I

This course uses a systems approach to examine concepts in pathophysiology as a basis for podiatric medical practice in primary health care. The course is designed to provide the student with an understanding of diagnosis, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and management of a wide variety of illnesses of the human body. Special emphasis is placed on systemic disorders affecting the lower extremity and focuses on altered cell biology, hemostasis and hemodynamic disorders, inflammation, cardiovascular alterations, infectious diseases, endocrine dysfunction, and immune system alterations. This comprehensive course enables the student to recognize medical conditions outside of podiatric medicine and refer to appropriate medical practitioners.

POCH111 – Podiatric Medicine I

This is an introductory course in Podiatric Medicine. It is suitable for students in semester one, year one.   APCH 110, APCH 111 and PGCH 110 should be taken concurrently to understand the concepts taught in this course.  This course is a necessary pre-requisite to proceed to the following semesters of this program. This is a comprehensive course, which covers the fundamental concepts and conditions seen in podiatric medicine.  This course will educate the learners in the areas of assessment, management and prevention of diseases related to the foot. Emphasis will be on the principles of examination and diagnosis in clinical management.  This course will provide a foundation for the learners in preparation for POCH 122 and CLCH 120.  Note: Students often work in partners to practice skills on each other.

FPCH111 – Foundations of Podiatric Professional Practice

Foundations of podiatric professional practice is an online first year course which introduces the professional role of the chiropodist as a primary health care practitioner. Models of reflective practice will be introduced to support continuous professional development and quality improvement.  Effective therapeutic and inter-professional communication will be highlighted and you will have the opportunity to explore and refine communication skills.  Course material related to cultural competence, determinants of health and vulnerable populations will also be examined towards achieving greater knowledge of various patient populations.  Obligations and responsibilities related to the College of Chiropodists Code of Ethics and Provincial Privacy Acts will be reviewed and applied to case studies.

Semester 2 -Winter

BMCH121 – Podiatric Biomechanics I

This is an introductory course that will cover normal human biomechanics of the lower extremity.  The intent of this course is to provide the learner with a thorough understanding of human gait, with an emphasis on normal foot function in the gait cycle.  Basic Podiatric biomechanical examination techniques, including gait analysis, will be taught, demonstrated, and practiced to allow the learner to recognize and assess normal biomechanics of the lower extremity.  The intent of this course is to provide the learner with an understanding of normal biomechanical function of the lower extremity within the simulated clinical setting and through this understanding of normal structure and function, the learner will be prepared to study pathomechanics.

CLCH121 – Podiatric Clinical Practice I

During this clinical rotation the student will be provided with the opportunity to observe and perform evaluation and treatment of lower extremity diseases and disorders. The focus of this rotation will be on the podiatric history, podiatric assessment and non-high risk routine foot care. Under the guidance and instruction of attending chiropodist or podiatrist, the student will apply his/her theory and laboratory knowledge to patients who present with a variety of foot and ankle disorders and systemic diseases. This will help the student begin to understand the complexity and nature of podiatric practice. This component of the program is designed to provide the first steps to a broad range of clinical experiences, which will allow the student to apply patient management skills, effective communication and professionalism in a learning-centered and interprofessional environment.

Evaluations are performed on real patients, unless otherwise specified, and schedules may be subject to change.

PGCH121 – Pathophysiology II

This course uses a systems approach to examine concepts in pathophysiology as a basis for podiatric medical practice in primary health care. The course is designed to provide the student with an understanding of diagnosis, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and treatment of a wide variety of illnesses of the human body. Special emphasis is placed on systemic disorders affecting the lower extremity. This course focuses on neoplasia, hematological disorders, pulmonary alterations, renal system disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, genetic disorders and neurological disorders. This comprehensive course enables the student to recognize medical conditions outside of podiatric medicine and refer to appropriate medical practitioner.

PMCH121 – Clinical Pharmacology

This course has three main components. The first provides the understanding of Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and outlines the principles of drug classification based on molecular, cellular, organ and system target, mechanisms of action and therapeutic indications. Articulation of the principles presented in the first component is an absolute pre-requisite to the study of Clinical Pharmacology and Systems Pharmacology, the second and third components of the course. The mechanisms of action and therapeutic indications of drug on the various morpho-functional systems are analyzed. An integrated approach to drug action is described, based on the assessment of the physiological and pathological processes and therapeutic applications. Identifying these principles and applying them in a systematic manner provides the tools for the therapeutic implementation of an evidence-based drug use.

POCH122 – Podiatric Medicine II

This course is designed to further the learner’s understanding of conditions that result in pain or deformity of the foot. The course will educate the learners in the areas of conservative management and prevention of diseases, disorders or dysfunction of the foot by therapeutic, orthotic or palliative means. This course builds on theory covered in Dermatology, Podiatric Medicine I, and Anatomy courses from semester one. This course will include the definitions, etiology and conservative management for rearfoot, forefoot and lesser toes deformities. The course includes an extensive laboratory component to educate the learners in the application of theory and clinical skills required for patient care. The intent of this course is to lay the foundation for the learners in preparation for their concurrent clinical site rotation(s).

Semester 3 – Fall

BMCH230 – Podiatric Biomechanics II

This course will focus on the primary structural and functional abnormalities of the foot that are commonly encountered by the practitioner. The influence of these abnormalities on gait is considered in conjunction with their potential to cause secondary soft tissue and structural conditions. This course reviews the single plane deformities of the lower extremity and their effect on normal function. It also deals with the etiology, clinical diagnosis and management of common orthopedic foot and ankle problems. This will provide the student with a thorough understanding of normal and abnormal locomotion and enable the student to create a management plan to improve the mechanical function of the foot. This course examines the application, fabrication and use of various lower extremity foot orthotic devices in the treatment of biomechanical abnormalities.

CLCH231 – Podiatric Clinical Practice II

During this clinical rotation the student will be provided with the opportunity to observe, perform physical assessments and manage lower extremity diseases and disorders of the foot and ankle.  The focus of this rotation will be on integrating the results of a podiatric history, a podiatric assessment and comprehensive management of podiatric cases. Under the guidance and instruction of the attending podiatric or medical staff, the student will apply his/her theory and practical knowledge to patients who present with a variety of foot and ankle disorders as well as systemic diseases. This will help the student continue to understand the complexity and nature of podiatric practice.  This component of the program is designed to provide a broad range of clinical experiences, which will allow the student to apply patient management skills, effective communication and professionalism in a learning-centered and interprofessional environment.

IGCH230 – Laboratory Diagnosis and Imaging

This course is designed to provide the learner with the ability to understand and evaluate common laboratory and imaging tests that may arise in the clinical setting as an aid in management of the podiatric patient. A number of diagnostic disciplines will be considered, such as hematology, biochemistry, immunology, microbiology, radiography, MRI, ultrasound, etc. The learner will be expected to relate theoretical material to the clinical setting and be able to interpret and discuss the implications of laboratory/imaging test results as they relate to a series of patient case studies. This course will give the student the opportunity to develop their critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills.

LACH230 – Podiatric Anesthesia and Injections

This is an introductory course on Podiatric Anaesthesia and Injectables. It is suitable for semester three, year two Chiropody program students who have successfully completed all prerequisite courses in year one of the program. The successful completion of year one in the Chiropody program or equivalent is necessary to understand LACH 230. This course is a necessary pre-requisite to studying TSCH 240 and CLCH 240. This course looks at the use of anaesthesia, sedation, and injection techniques. The understanding of principles and safety measures related to the administration of injectable substances into the foot will be covered, with an emphasis on anaesthetic digital and ankle nerve blocks and corticosteroid injections. The understanding of principles and safety measures related to the administration of oral and inhaled sedative agents will be covered including their applications during foot and ankle procedures where conscious sedation is deemed appropriate. This course will review the following pharmacological agents commonly used in anaesthesia and sedation: local anesthetic agents, corticosteroid agents, benzodiazepines, nitrous oxide and other inhaled anesthetics. Review of these pharmacological agents will include: mechanisms of action, appropriate clinical applications and administration, indications, contraindications, complications and appropriate management of these complications. Topics such as pre-surgical/anaesthesia history and physical assessment, treatment protocols for common office emergencies related and unrelated to injection procedures and sedation, inhaled anaesthetics, informed consent, and documentation/charting will be discussed during didactic sessions and applied during the laboratory sessions.

POCH230 – Podiatric Medicine III

This is a second-year chiropody course, delivered online (virtually), covering advanced concepts and conditions seen in podiatric practice. The course will educate the learners on rheumatic and connective tissue conditions with podiatric implications.  Podiatric case management plans will be undertaken, which will focus on integration of knowledge acquired in this course with material from pre-requisite courses.

Semester 4 – Winter

CLCH241 – Podiatric Clinical Practice III

During this clinical rotation the student will be provided with the opportunity to observe, perform physical assessments and manage lower extremity diseases and disorders of the foot and ankle. The focus of this rotation will be on integrating the results of a podiatric history and podiatric assessment into a comprehensive management plan for podiatric cases. Under the guidance and instruction of attending chiropody faculty, the student will apply his/her theory and practical knowledge to patients who present with a variety of foot and ankle disorders as well as systemic diseases. This will help the student continue to understand the complexity and nature of podiatric practice.  This component of the program is designed to provide a broad range of clinical experiences, which will allow the student to apply patient management skills, effective communication and professionalism in a learning-centered environment.

*Evaluations are performed on actual or standardized patients and schedules may be subject to change.

PECH240 – Podopediatrics

This course is designed to give the learner an understanding of how to recognize, assess, and treat conditions affecting the lower extremity of the developing child. Normal development is considered and provides the basis for the study of the developmental abnormalities and the pathological conditions that children may present with. History taking, physical examination, and diagnosis of the pediatric patient are also discussed. The psychosocial issues encountered in treating children are highlighted. Interpretation and gait analysis of both the normal and abnormal pediatric patient are also discussed.

POCH240 – Management of the High Risk Foot

This course is designed to provide the learner with the knowledge and skills to  recognize, assess and manage the “high-risk foot”.  The podiatric manifestations of peripheral vascular disease, diabetes and neurological disorders will be explored.  A review of the medical, surgical and podiatric specific management strategies for the high risk foot will be undertaken using a variety of patient case scenarios. This course will also investigate methods of preventing complications in the high-risk foot and effectively managing complications such as, but not limited to, infection, ulceration and necrosis.

SMCH240 – Podiatric Sports Medicine

This course is designed to provide the student with basic understanding of prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of sports injuries of the lower limb. It will integrate the normal and abnormal biomechanics previously learned. This course will also provide the student with a comprehensive understanding of all physical therapy modalities and procedures used in rehabilitation of sports injuries.

TSCH240 – Podiatric Soft Tissue Surgery

This course builds upon the content delivered in the Podiatric Anesthesia & Injectables course and provides the learner with a working knowledge of the soft tissue and osseous pathologies that affect the foot and lower extremity. During the course, the structure and function of the foot will be discussed, and patient evaluation and perioperative management with respect to specific surgical procedures will be described. In addition to soft tissue surgery, specific boney surgical procedures will be discussed with a view for appropriate referrals. This course is designed to familiarize the student with the appropriate diagnostic techniques, and accepted conservative and surgical treatment of patients suffering diseases and disorders of the foot and lower extremity. Office surgery and sterile surgical protocols, charting, instrumentation, hemostasis, closure techniques, plastic surgery techniques and wound healing will be reviewed.

Semester 5 – Summer

CLCH251 – Podiatric Clinical Practice IV

During this clinical rotation the student will be provided with the opportunity to observe, perform physical assessments and manage lower extremity diseases and disorders of the foot and ankle.  The focus of this rotation will be on integrating the results of a podiatric history, a podiatric assessment and comprehensive management of podiatric cases. Under the guidance and instruction of the attending podiatric or medical staff, the student will apply his/her theory and practical knowledge to patients who present with a variety of foot and ankle disorders as well as systemic diseases. This will help the student continue to understand the complexity and nature of podiatric practice.  This component of the program is designed to provide a broad range of clinical experiences, which will allow the student to apply patient management skills, effective communication and professionalism in a learning-centered and interprofessional environment.

EBCH253 – Evidence Based Practice

This course is designed to provide the learner the opportunity to integrate the theoretical and practically oriented knowledge underlying the podiatric management of patients. A problem-based approach to learning will be adopted to promote open, critical thinking and cases will be presented to the student using a variety of formats. Small group work will be utilized promoting effective teamwork and collaborative learning. An evidence-based approach to clinical decision making and practice will also be emphasized which promotes the collection, interpretation and integration of valid research-derived evidence.

RMCH360 – Research Project

This course is an on-line course which involves independent study in which the learner will apply fundamental research principles in the clinical setting. Students will be required to progressively complete an academic research proposal on a topic related to their chosen profession. The proposed topic should be innovative and fresh, challenging the current professional practice. Additionally, students will summarize their proposal in to a Research Poster, a common format used in profession related presentations. This course builds upon the knowledge and skills related to planning and conducting applied research that the learner has obtained in Interprofessional Research (RMIP230) and, if applicable, Evidence Based Medicine (EBCH 250). It also encourages the learner to develop as a reflective practitioner who adopts an evidence based approach to practice.

Semester 6 – Fall

CLCH361 – Podiatric Clinical Placements (Clinical Practice V)

During this clinical rotation the student will be provided with the opportunity to observe, perform, physical assessments and manage lower extremity diseases and disorders of the foot and ankle. The focus of this rotation will be on integrating the results of a podiatric history, a podiatric assessment and comprehensive management of podiatric cases. Under the guidance and instruction of the attending podiatric or medical staff, the student will apply his/her theory and practical knowledge to patients who present with a variety of foot and ankle disorders as well as systemic diseases. This will help the student continue to understand the complexity and nature of podiatric practice. This component of the program is designed to provide a broad range of clinical experiences, which will allow the student to apply patient management skills, effective communication and professionalism in a learning-centered and interprofessional environment.

Semester 7 – Winter

CLCH372 – Podiatric Clinical Externships

During this external rotation, the student will continue with their clinical exposure which provides opportunity to evaluate and successfully manage lower extremity diseases, disorders, and dysfunctions. Under the guidance and instruction of attending podiatric and affiliated medical practitioners, the student will apply his/her theoretical and practical knowledge to patients with various foot and ankle disorders. Inter-professional collaboration will be encouraged throughout the clinical exposure where possible. This rotation is undertaken with the assistance of our affiliated clinical sites provincially and nationally. During this time students will rotate through a number of different external clinical settings ranging from private practice clinics, community health centres and hospital-based settings. The rotations are divided into two possible study blocks for a total of 15 weeks.  Students will practice chiropody/podiatry under the guidance and instruction of a registered chiropodist/podiatrist and can participate in clinics including: podopediatrics, high risk/wound management, sports medicine and rehabilitation, biomechanics, podiatric surgery, research and interprofessional rotations. It is a requirement that students have a current CPR certificate, have undertaken a police check and have up-to-date immunization. This component of the program is designed to provide a broad range of clinical experiences, which will allow the student to apply patient management skills and professional skills in a learning-centered environment.

LPCH360 – Legislation & Practice Management

This course will develop the learner’s ability to employ business strategies in the management of a chiropody practice. Legislative and non-legislative requirements governing Chiropodists will be reviewed and explored by learners towards developing clinic policies and procedures documentation. Learners will also participate in a jurisprudence examination to evaluate their knowledge, skills and judgment in this important area. The learner will determine the demographic, location, human resource, equipment, supply, insurance and financial management requirements necessary to operate a practice. Learners will then use their research to develop a business plan for the creation of their own future Chiropody practice.